ut pueris olim dant crustula blandi
doctores, elementa velint ut discere prima ?
Hor. Serm. I, 1, 25.

I thank Jacques Julien for his friendly help, and patience.


Dear Latinist, beginner or master, welcome.

You will find here a collection of exercises to learn Latin language. A link at the bottom of this page will allow you to install them on any PHP-enabled web server. Please come back soon: new crustula might be often added, and it might happen that others get modified.

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    English language is rather near Latin language because it included a great part of its dictionary. Still, it is difficult to learn. Why?

    Because the words order does not matter to understand, but the end of the words does. The crustulum QVIS QVEM AMAT ? proposes you small phrases to initiate you to that principe. Please do not reply automatically, and watch carefully the end of nouns.

    The crustulum NAMED AND ACCUSATIVE is quite the same, but it allows you to undertand two important cases: the named and the accusative. A subject noun is nominative, and a direct object complement noun is accusative

    A little bit trickier: you must write the translation, either from Latin to English, or from English to Latin: SOV bis

    Crustulum AMO, PRESENT INDICATIVE shows you how to conjugate the verb amo to all persons of present indicative

    Conjugating sum, to be, is done in SVM, PRESENT INDICATIVE.

    A name in genitive has a good chance of being a complement to the name. To trin youself to read genitive, you can practice CVIVS ? and QVIS QVID EST CVIVS?

    The dative is the case of the person or thing to whom what is done is intended. Le crustulum QVIS CVI QVEM COMMENDAT ? est une initiation au datif, et DATIVVS CASVS en est une application plus complète.

    Crustulum for the ablative is a little more difficult. Do not insist if you do not make it to the fifth level.

    Two crustula will allow you to be perfectly at your ease in the system of cases and of their values: first Initiation to cases: the values then Quem casum?

    As you are knowing cases and their values, you must learn declensions: To begin with, the to first declensions at nominative, accusative and genitive singular.
    Later, the same cases, adding the plural. Then you must learn a small vocabulary of the two first declensions .

    So you will be ablke to access a greater variety of phrases: Subject, object, verb (+ templates with -er) . Here is a sample of the same principle, with the third declension: Subject, object, verb (+ 3rd declension) In subject, object, verb (+ conjugation), you will have to conjugate the present of many verbs; and in subject, object, verb, genitive, imperfect, there will be genitive and imperfect.

    Now, time has come to learn all the cases with example phrases: First declension and values of cases and Second declension and values of cases Gladius and Dux allow you to quicly revise this notion.

    However you only saw two declensions. There are five of them! You must begin with learning to recognize easily the declension models. Then, you must learn gradually all the declensions. It is rather long, and you will have to exercise yourself for a while with the gradual training to declension

    Studying the verb is done with the same principle: You must learn to recognize easily the conjugation templates. Then you must conjugate. It is possible to learn simultaneously active and passive present: Veho, uehor. The conjugation of a Latin verb depends of three radicals: the one of the present (or of the infectum), the one of the perfect (or of the perfectum), and the one of the supine: the three radicals of verbs. You must also learn to read correctly what the dictionary means when it gives a verb: primitive times. Begin with the present. The perfect uses the radical of the perfectum and particular endingq. The perfect of sum< is an example of it. Apply this principle to train with present and perfect of amo. Then you become able to learn all of the indicative, the exercise is gradual: you must succeed with the present to begin with the future, with the future to begin with the imperfect, etc.


    To revise declensions, DECL-OCIVS is most appropriate.

    For a better knowledge of the value of cases: Values of cases and functions .

    As for any language, you must not only acquire vocabulary:

    ... but also use it: CVI phrases to study. The crustula have now many levels. At the first one, giving the used case is enough, but further one must decline correctly the missing word. At top level, no indication is given. The word is missing, one must find it out.

    The crustulum QVIS QVEM AMAT? will make you more familiar with the passive. Apprends à reconnaître Ab introduisant un complément d'agent et Ab introduisant un complément de lieu : Ab, le lieu et le passif.

    The perfect passive participle is a very frequent form in Latin.

    Apprends à distinguer et à employer le subjonctif.

    Among the pronouns, you can study is, ea, id and qui, quae, quod.


  6. CLAUDE PAVUR's METHOD: GRASP Claude Pavur is teaching at Saint-Louis UNiversity, in the USA. He created this method which proposes to read a phrase in progressive steps, while making it more and more complicated, to finally get the original phrase.
Access source code © Yves Ouvrard, VII Kal. Oct. MMDCCLVIII AVC (27 September 2005) - licentiâ GPL.
To intall those Crustula, uncompress this archive in the public part of a PHP-enabled web server.